1. Background to Saferworld Kenya Programme
Saferworld has been working to prevent violent conflict, enhance community security and governance in Kenya since 2003. Our thematic expertise includes violent conflict prevention and peacebuilding, inclusive and effective justice and security provision, small arms and light weapons control (SALW) and improved governance that addresses the drivers of conflict.2.Background to the project**
Pastoralism is the main economic and livelihood activity for the people living in Arid and Semi-Arid (ASAL) regions of Kenya. Specifically in Samburu County, Livestock farming constitutes a larger percentage of the county’s economy with 60% of the population practicing pure pastoralism and 30% percent practicing agro pastoralism. It is also the major medium of exchange and food during social-cultural occasions including marriage, circumcision, religious sacrifices and cultural exchange or compensation. However, whereas a large number of inhabitants in this county rely heavily on pastoralism for their livelihoods, the livestock production system is characterised by low external inputs and therefore relies entirely on natural resources for livestock sustenance and production. This limits its viability due to multiple climate change and natural resources ecosystem challenges such as the unpredictable weather variations, prolonged drought and uncontrolled use of available pasture and water resources that often leads to multi inter- ethnic clashes and conflicts over the scarce resources.
Environmental conservation, effective and controlled use of grazing and water resources remain key requirements for the sustainability of the natural ecosystems and local livelihoods of the region. Given the inherent variability of grazing and water resources in the region, the success and resilience of the livestock production system in the county relies heavily on how well the use of natural resources are adapted in response to seasonal and locational fluctuations. This calls for enforceable regulations and institutions to ensure that all users abide by the rules that govern access and the use of resources. Traditionally, this has been achieved through customary natural resource governance institutions. The institutions are set up and guided by rules and regulations, which are governed by elders elected by the communities. The establishment of community group ranches and community conservancies in Samburu County complicated the access of the glazing lands. Despite the existence of statutory laws for the management of natural resources, land and land-based resources in the country, resources in the vast drylands of Kenya continue to be largely managed by such non-statutory local institutions and rules.
Livestock production and pastoralism falls within the agricultural sector of the devolved functions of the county governments. The sector faces many challenges among them the weak governance and accountability mechanisms that are characterised by poor policy prioritisation, weak legal and policy development frameworks and poor service delivery at the county level. The traditional rangeland management institutions and rules in place are neither recognised nor enforced by the government. This lack of recognition undermines the authority of pastoralist communities and their institutions to sustainably manage the rangelands and often results in open access scenarios where individual gains are maximised at the expense of the environment and the resource base leading to: - resource degradation; deteriorating livelihoods and economies as well as; conflicts over the scarce resources particularly during the dry season.
Saferworld acknowledges that sustainable rangeland management practices is one of the means of transforming pastoralism and broadly, the livestock sector in the country. Saferworld therefore proposes to work in partnership with Pamoja for Transformation in Samburu County to address policy issues affecting rangeland management. Additionally, Saferworld and partner organisations recognise the unstable relationship between Samburu and neighbouring counties with regard to the livelihood systems and conflict dynamics. Efforts will be made to support the convergence of the various counties through initiatives such as Frontier Counties Development Council(FCDC) and the Amaya Triangle Initiative(ATI) that seek to achieve shared understanding of the needs, gaps, solutions as well as mechanisms that facilitate a collaboration in addressing conflict drivers and improving pastoralism in the region.
This project will be implemented over a period of 15 months (July 2018 – September 2019) in Samburu County where customary mechanisms have been instrumental in natural resource management. The impact of the project is ‘Inclusive and effective governance of rangeland resources such as pasture and water which guarantees community needs, including needs of women, youth and other excluded groups in Samburu County and the outcome is ‘County government of Samburu formulates and/or adopts inclusive policy/legislation on rangeland management that addresses communities’ needs and priorities including the needs for women, youth and other excluded groups.3. Purpose and Objective of the Review
Saferworld would like to engage an expert or a team of experts to review existing policies both formal and informal affecting rangeland management in Samburu County with the aim of identifying existing gaps, overlaps and strengths and make practical recommendations on how they can be developed, re-drafted, merged or amended to ensure they are responsive to pastoral community needs.
Specifically, the expert will:
4. Scope and Focus
The expert will develop an expert paper to inform strategies to engage the county government, pastoral community and other stakeholder in the Samburu county in strengthening policy framework that will ensure inclusivity and conflict sensitivity in the rangeland management. The review will be done through consultations with national and county governments in Samburu county, Civil Society Organisations, private sector and different community groups among other stakeholders. During the consultancy period, the expert(s) will be expected to look at existing policies from national and county government as well as those from the neighbouring counties especially those counties which are members of FCDC and ATI to get their perspectives on the practicability of current policy framework/mechanisms and firm up the rationale of developing a more inclusive policy that supports enforcement across all pastoralist communities. The expert will be expected to conduct extensive desk review for existing policies touching on sustainable rangeland management and engage relevant county authorities on the same. He/she will be expected to look at other legal frameworks from other countries where sustainable rangeland management is being practiced and borrow such best practices as he/she make recommendation for this assignment. Few interviews will be conducted at Nairobi, Samburu County and in the target wards for clarification on gaps in the current policy frameworks as well as the implementation at community and county levels.
5. Technical review process
The expert will be expected to take a period of 20 working days spread across three months starting from February to April 2019 to do and not limited to the following specific activities:
· Hold initial meeting with project team to explain context of the review, particular issues to be looked at, challenges, expected outcomes, agreement on the scope of work and contents of a work plan.
· Conduct desk research to familiarise her/himself with the county governments operations especially around county Assembly and policy formulation, taking stock of the existing policies, identify key informants (experts, institutions) to interview during the consultancy period.
· Hold initial consultation with county authorities and relevant stakeholders on existing rangeland management practices, strategies, needs and priorities to inform the review and recommendation process.
· Conduct targeted key informants on some of the grey areas realised during the desk review research.
· Conduct field visits to observe how the policy and regulations are implemented at both county and community levels.
· Conduct a participatory feedback session with the project team and other stakeholders to share key findings before writing the expert paper
6. Key Deliverables
7. Consultant Qualifications
The suitable person/ team should have the following qualifications:
A detailed version of the terms of reference can be found at: https://www.saferworld.org.uk/job-postings/tor-technical-review-of-polic...
How to apply:
Qualified and interested candidates are hereby requested to apply (either as a team or
individually). The application should contain the following:
A soft copy of the application should be sent to [email removed] (Your e-mail must have the subject heading indicating DDP 2 POLICY REVIEW CONSULTANCY.) Deadline for applications is 18th January 2019. Only selected candidate (s) will be contacted about the outcome of their applications.
Terms of reference: technical review of policies in Samburu county in relation to rangeland management and pastoralists' livelihoods
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